VFD Controller

Variable-frequency drive

A variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-frequency drive (AFD), variable-voltage/variable-frequency (VVVF) drive, variable speed drive (VSD), AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive is a type of adjustable-speed drive used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage.
VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to large compressors. About 25% of the world's electrical energy is consumed by electric motors in industrial applications. Systems using VFDs can be more efficient than those using throttling control of fluid flow, such as in systems with pumps and damper control for fans. However, the global market penetration for all applications of VFDs is relatively small

System description and operation

A variable-frequency drive is a device used in a drive system consisting of the following three main sub-systems: AC motor, main drive controller assembly, and drive/operator interface
The AC electric motor used in a VFD system is usually a three-phase induction motor. Some types of single-phase motors or synchronous motors can be advantageous in some situations, but generally three-phase induction motors are preferred as the most economical. Motors that are designed for fixed-speed operation are often used. Elevated-voltage stresses imposed on induction motors that are supplied by VFDs require that such motors be designed for definite-purpose inverter-fed duty in accordance with such requirements as Part 31 of NEMA Standard MG-1
Depending on the model a VFD's operating parameters can be programmed via: dedicated programming software, internal keypad, external keypad, or SD card. VFDs will often block out most programming changes while running. Typical parameters that need to be set include: motor nameplate information, speed reference source,on/off control source and braking control. It is also common for VFDs to provide debugging information such as fault codes and the states .